C hacks in CPython source code

Detect integer overflows

Before memory allocation.

In overallocate:

if (newlen <= (PY_SSIZE_T_MAX - newlen / 4))
    newlen += newlen / 4;

Avoid undefined behaviour

Issue #7406:

-   x = a + b;
+   /* casts in the line below avoid undefined behaviour on overflow */
+   x = (long)((unsigned long)a + b);

Usage of goto

Something like try/finally.

Optimisations

Unicode.

stringlib

  • fastsearch.h: Bloom filter

Computed goto

Python/ceval.c

Python types

  • (size_t,) PY_SIZE_MAX
  • Py_ssize_t, PY_SSIZE_T_MAX
  • PY_LONG_LONG (#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG)

Type aliasing

PyCompactUnicodeObject:

typedef struct {
    PyASCIIObject _base;
    Py_ssize_t utf8_length;     /* Number of bytes in utf8, excluding the
                                 * terminating \0. */
    char *utf8;                 /* UTF-8 representation (null-terminated) */
    Py_ssize_t wstr_length;     /* Number of code points in wstr, possible
                                 * surrogates count as two code points. */
} PyCompactUnicodeObject;

Macros

  • Add assertions using “a,b” syntax. Ugly example:

    #define PyUnicode_READY(op)                     \
        (assert(PyUnicode_Check(op)),               \
         (PyUnicode_IS_READY(op) ?                  \
          0 : _PyUnicode_Ready((PyObject *)(op))))
    
  • Py_SAFE_DOWNCAST

  • Py_ARRAY_LENGTH(array): check at compile time if the argument is an array

  • do { ... } while (0), ex: Py_DECREF()

Examples:

#define Py_RETURN_TRUE return Py_INCREF(Py_True), Py_True
#define PyBool_Check(x) (Py_TYPE(x) == &PyBool_Type)

Memory allocation

  • pymalloc
  • free list: unbound method, MemoryError instance, frame, list, set, tuple
  • overallocate
    • list: 12.5% new_allocated = (newsize >> 3) + (newsize < 9 ? 3 : 6);
    • string formatting: 25% newlen += newlen / 4;
    • depend on the performance of realloc(): fast on Linux, slow on Windows (older than Windows 7)
  • Unicode: PyUnicodeWriter, PyAccu

dict

  • hash()
  • hash vulnerability

timsort

xxx